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Historical review of solar photovoltaic technology

The world solar energy as a source of energy and power to use, has 300 years of history. 1615 the French engineers Solomon. Germany. Cox invented the first solar heated air expansion work and pumping machinery. Between the years of 1615 -1900, the world and the development of multiple solar power plant and some other solar installations.
    The following recalled the history of the development solar collector of solar technology in the 20th century, 100 years. Solar energy development in the past 100 years the road twists and turns, the high tide and low tide period. At the height of about 55 years, at a low ebb for about 45 years.
    The first low tide :1920-1945, much less participate in research and research projects. A large number of its causes and mineral fuels development and utilization occurred related to the Second World War (1935-1945).
    Second low tide :1965-1973, solar energy research stalled, mainly due to the use of solar energy technology in the growth stage, is not yet mature, and the large investment, the result is not satisfactory, so the lack of public, corporate and government attention and support.
    The third ebb :1980-1992, into the development and utilization of solar energy in the 1980s gradually into the trough, many countries in the world drastically cut funding for solar research, the United States is the most prominent cause of this phenomenon is mainly due to: World oil prices decline significantly, solar products high prices, lack of competitiveness, there is no significant progress in solar technology. This has shaken the confidence of some people to develop solar. China's solar research also received to a certain extent, it was argued that the introduction of technology after the success of the foreign study, although very few people who hold this view, but also have an adverse effect on the development of China's solar cause.
    Despite the development of solar energy utilization by factors of mineral resources, politics and war, but the scientists of the world in the use of solar energy, or has made brilliant achievements in the 21st century, there have been several climax.
    The first climax :1900-1920, from the focus of the world on solar research solar power plant. However, the condenser diversification the public quality flat-plate collector and a low boiling point, the device gradually expanded. California, in the United States in 1901 to build a solar pumping device. Built in the United States in 1902-1908, five sets of double-loop solar engine. In Egypt in 1913, built a solar pump 5 parabolic trough mirrors.
    From the second climax: 1945 -1965 years after the end of World War II, the visionary has noted that the oil and gas resources are being gradually reduced, and called on people to pay attention to this issue, so as to promote the solar energy research. carried out, and the formation of the solar academic organizations, organize academic exchanges and exhibitions rise of solar energy research boom again. A power of 1952, the French national research center built in the eastern Pyrenees 50kw solar furnace. Practical silicon solar cells developed by Bell Labs in the United States in 1954, laid the foundation for the large-scale application of photovoltaic power generation. In 1960, the advent of the Stirling engine with a quartz window. Strengthen solar basic theory and basic materials research in the past 20 years.
    Third the height of the :1973-1980, October 1973 Middle East war broke out, so that those who rely on a large number of cheap oil imports from the Middle East countries, hard hit in the economic world energy crisis. So many countries, especially the industrialized countries to re-strengthen the support of solar and other renewable energy technology development, the rise of the development and utilization of solar energy boom in the world again. United States to develop solar power generation program of the government in 1973, significant growth of solar energy research funding, the establishment of the Solar Development Bank, to promote the commercialization of solar products.
In 1974, the Japanese government established "Project Sunshine". World development and utilization of solar energy boom also had a huge impact on China, "the nation's first solar energy utilization experience exchange conference" held in Anyang, Henan in 1975, to further promote the development of solar energy industry. After the meeting, the solar energy research and extension work included in the Chinese government plans to obtain special funding and material support.
    Fourth the height of the 1992 and 2000, due to the burning of fossil energy, resulting in global environmental pollution and ecological damage, pose a threat to human survival and development, in this case, in 1992, the United Nations held in Brazil, "World Environment and Development Conference, the Conference adopted a series of important documents in Rio de Janeiro on Environment and Development Declaration, Agenda 21 and the United Nations Climate Change Framework Convention ". Following this meeting, the countries of the world to strengthen the development of clean energy technologies, combined with the use of solar energy and environmental protection. In 1996, the United Nations held in Zimbabwe in the World Solar Summit, published Harare Solar Energy and Sustainable Development Declaration, the meeting discussed the "10 years of the World Solar Action Plan" (1996-2005), the Convention on the International Solar World Solar strategic planning and other important documents, the meeting further demonstrates the firm determination of the United Nations and the countries of the world on the development of solar energy requirements of the world to act together, the extensive use of solar energy. After the world conference on environmental protection, the Chinese government attaches great importance to the environment and development, strategy and measures put forward 10 years, and clearly to the development and promotion of solar energy, wind energy, geothermal energy, tidal energy, biomass and other clean energy "local conditions", developed " China's Agenda 21 ", further defined the solar key development goals. In 1995, the State Planning Commission, the State Science and Technology Commission and the State Economic and Trade Commission to develop new energy and renewable energy development program "(1996-2010), clearly China 1996-2010 new energy and renewable energy development goals and tasks and the corresponding countermeasures and measures.
    Recalling the above, the development of solar energy in the 20th century, 100 years is not a smooth road, Despite this, the 21st century is the century of human scale use of solar.
    Since its inception in 1954, a practical photovoltaic cells, solar photovoltaic power generation has made considerable progress. But much slower than the development of computers and fiber-optic communications. The reason may be particularly strong pursuit of information, conventional energy sources can meet human demand for energy. The 1973 oil crisis and the problem of environmental pollution in the 1990s contributed greatly to the development of solar photovoltaic power generation. Development process are summarized as follows:
    1893 French scientist Henri Becquerel discovered the photovoltaic effect, that the photovoltaic effect.
    Adams and other solid-state photovoltaic effect found in the metal and selenium tablets in 1876.
    1883 made of a selenium cell ", used as a sensitive devices.
    1930 Schottky the Cu2O barrier "photovoltaic effect" theory. The same year, Lange first proposed the "photovoltaic effect" manufacturing solar cells, solar energy into electrical energy.
    1931 Bruno copper compounds and selenium silver electrode immersed in the electrolyte in the sun to start a motor.
    1932 Audubon Bott and Stora made a "CdS solar cells.
    In 1941, Ehud discovered the photovoltaic effect in silicon.
    1954 Qiabin and Pirson Bell Laboratories in the United States, for the first time made a practical single crystal solar cell efficiency of 6%. The same year, wijckel first discovered gallium arsenide photovoltaic effect, and the deposition of CdS thin films on glass, and made the first piece of thin film solar cells.
    1955 the Gini and Luo non-Gaussian photoelectric conversion efficiency of the material to optimize the design.
In the same year, the advent of the first photoelectric beacon lights. The American RCA Research GaAs solar cells.
    Efficiency of silicon solar cells up to 8% in 1957.
    1958 solar cell applications in space for the first time, satellite power equipment on the 1st of the American pioneer.
    1959 first polysilicon solar cells come out, the efficiency of 5%.
    1960 silicon solar cells for the first time in the Grid.
    GaAs solar cells conversion efficiency up to 13% in 1962.
    CdS thin film solar cell efficiency of up to 8% in 1969.
    Luo non-Gaussian developed in 1972 the purple cell efficiency of 16%.
    The field battery come out of the U.S. aerospace company back in 1972.
    Gallium arsenide solar cell efficiency up to 15% in 1973.
    1974 COMSAT Institute the no reflection suede battery, silicon solar cell efficiency of 18%.
    The advent of amorphous silicon solar cells in 1975. In the same year, with a silicon cell efficiency of 6% to%.
    Polycrystalline silicon solar cell efficiency up to 10% in 1976.
    In 1978, the United States built a the 100kWp solar terrestrial photovoltaic power plants.
    Single crystal silicon solar cell efficiency of up to 20% in 1980, 22.5% gallium arsenide cells, polycrystalline silicon cells of 14.5%, 9.15% cadmium sulfide battery.
    In 1983, the United States into 1MWp photovoltaic power plants; metallurgical silicon (epitaxial) cell efficiency of 11.8%.
    Built 6.5MWp PV power plant in the United States in 1986.
    In 1990, Germany made the 2000 Solar Roofs Plan "of each family the roof mounted 3 ~ 5kWp photovoltaic battery.
    High efficiency concentrator GaAs solar cell efficiency of up to 32% in 1995.
    Million Solar Roofs Plan "for President Clinton in 1997 to 1,000,000 in 2010, install 3 ~~ 5kWp household. Photovoltaic cells. The sun rooftop PV power to the grid, the meter reverse; grid to power homes without a sun, the meter forward. Families only need to pay "net electricity bills.
    1997 Japanese "New Sunshine Program" to the 2010 production of 4.3 billion Wp photovoltaic cells.
    The European Union in 1997 to 2010 production of 3.7 billion Wp photovoltaic cells.
    In 1998, the single crystal silicon PV cell efficiency of 25%. The Government of the Netherlands the Netherlands one million solar photovoltaic roof plan, to be completed by 2020.

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